All about the Absence of Ovulation: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
Absence of ovulation (violation of growth and maturation of the follicle, as well as violation of the release of the egg from the follicle), both in the regular and non-regular menstrual cycle, is called anovulation.
The menstrual cycle can be conditionally divided into two phases. During the first phase, the follicle matures in the ovary, which also contains a maturing egg. Approximately in the middle of the cycle, this follicle should burst, so that the ovule can come out – this process is known as an ovulation. The egg released from the follicle is completely ready for fertilization, and if this occurs, then pregnancy takes place. If fertilization does not occur, menstruation and a new cycle begin.
With anovulation, fertilization and the onset of pregnancy is impossible, since the ovum simply does not exist or it could not leave the follicle (for example, with PCOS due to the dense ovary shell). The reasons for this can be very different, conditioned by physiology or existing in your body endocrine pathology. In any case, if you cannot get pregnant for a long time, contact your doctor for a comprehensive diagnostic examination. It is possible that the reason for infertility lies in the absence of your ovulation. Ovulation can be monitored at home, using ovulatory tests, be sure to record their results and the date of the test-this will help the doctor diagnose it.
How to Know that You Don’t Have Ovulation
To suspect absence of ovulation it is possible on a number of characteristic signs. Subjectively, the onset of ovulation is not felt by all women – for someone this period is imperceptible. Mucous secretions that appear during the ovulation period do not have an infectious nature are very stringy and last only a couple of days. If there are no excretions, the woman does not feel a slight discomfort in the lower abdomen or in the region of one of the ovaries, then one can assume that these are subjective signs of the absence of ovulation.
Basal temperature measurement is used to determine the period that is favorable for conceiving a child. Signs of absence of ovulation – an unchanged basal temperature during one cycle and the absence of bursts of increased sexual desire. Anovulatory cycles in absolutely healthy women are no more than 2-3 times a year.
Frequent signs of the absence of ovulation – the unequal length of the menstrual cycle, its lengthening or decrease. But this is a fairly unreliable sign, since there are many reasons for the cycle failures. You can not judge the absence of ovulation only by the duration of the cycle. Usually premenstrual syndrome occurs with characteristic symptoms of varying intensity – a slight increase in size, increased sensitivity and tenderness of the mammary glands, a slight increase in weight before the months, back pain, etc. If these symptoms are absent, the woman’s invariable condition, together with the absence of an increase in basal temperature, is taken for signs of absence of ovulation.
Laboratory studies can confirm the absence of ovulation in a specific cycle – a blood test for progesterone in the second phase of the cycle will show no increase in hormone levels. If you measure the level of pituitary hormones 1-1,5 days before the date of expected ovulation, then their constant value will become the most reliable sign of the absence of ovulation.
Using the ultrasound method, it is possible to accurately determine the absence of ovulation – the immature follicles do not change in size, and the state of the endometrium indicates the presence of the anovulatory cycle.
Causes Why a Woman Doesn’t Have Ovulation
Anovulation can be physiological or pathological (chronic). Absence of ovulation for physiological reasons is a normal phenomenon that does not require medical care. To such natural reasons, anovulation is customarily attributed:
- pubertal period – adolescent girls may not have ovulation for two years from the moment of the onset of the first menstruation;
- postpartum and lactation period;
- In addition, in women of childbearing age there are certain periods of rest, in which ovulation does not occur one or two cycles per year.
- The pathological absence of ovulation is a consequence of the wrong structure of the organs or the disease of the endocrine system. In many cases, this condition is the cause of infertility.
To pathological reasons of absence of ovulation it is possible to refer the following:
- dysfunction of the hypothalamus;
- oncological diseases of the pituitary gland;
- violation of the blood supply to the brain;
- frequent stress;
- trauma to the organs of the genital area;
- inflammatory diseases of appendages;
- premature menopause;
- gynecological diseases (polycystic ovary, endometriosis, uterine myoma and others);
- diseases of the thyroid gland and liver;
- taking medications without a doctor’s supervision;
- reception of hormonal contraceptives.
How to Treat the Absence of Ovulation
Treatment will depend on the reason for the absence of ovulation. Some cases of anovulation can be cured by a lifestyle change or diet. If the cause is in the low body weight or excessive physical activity – weight gain or a change in training regimen may be sufficient to restart ovulation.
The same applies to obesity. If you are overweight, then a loss of even 10% of your current weight may be enough to restart ovulation. The most common methods of treatment for anovulation are the use of drugs that promote conception. Clomid is a drug that is prescribed in the first place. Clomid can cause ovulation in 80% of anovulatory women and help about 45% get pregnant within six months after treatment. If Clomid does not help, there are many other pharmaceuticals.
If the cause of cessation of ovulation is a premature ovulation disorder or low ovarian reserves, the use of drugs that increase fertility is not effective. Because of the low probability of success, many but not all doctors refuse to treat women diagnosed with low ovarian reserves with such drugs. In this case, your doctor may suggest using assisted reproduction techniques.