Causes and Methods of Treatment
Infertility is manifested by the absence of pregnancy during 1.5 – 2 years or more in a woman who has a regular sexual life without using contraceptives. There is an absolute infertility associated with irreversible pathological conditions that exclude conception (anomalies in the development of the female sexual sphere), and the relative infertility, amenable to correction. Also, the primary (if a woman did not have a single pregnancy) and secondary infertility (if there was a pregnancy in the history) are distinguished. Female infertility is a serious psychological trauma for both partners. Let’s have a look at the possible causes and the ways of treatment, which are successfully used today.
Causes of Infertility in Women
Infertility is a problem faced by about 15% of couples around the world. Moreover, since the female reproductive system is more complex than the one the male has, about 60% of all infertile marriages are those because of a malfunction in the body of a woman. In this case, they talk about the presence of female infertility, which can be associated with a variety of diseases or disorders in the state of a woman. They are such as:
- increased secretion of prolactin;
- tumor formation of the pituitary gland;
- various forms of menstrual cycle disorders (amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, etc.), caused by violation of hormonal regulation;
- congenital defects in the anatomy of the genital organs;
- bilateral tubular obstruction;
- adhesive processes in the small pelvis;
- acquired malformation of genital organs;
- tuberculous lesion of the genital organs;
- systemic autoimmune diseases;
- negative post-coital test;
- psychosexual disorders;
- unclear reasons for infertility.
Depending on the reasons that lead women to problems with conception, the following forms of female infertility are classified:
- Endocrine (or hormonal) form of infertility;
- Pipe-peritoneal form of infertility;
- Uterine form of infertility;
- Infertility caused by endometriosis;
- Immune form of infertility;
- Infertility of unknown genesis.
How is the Diagnosis of Infertility Set?
If the pregnancy has not occurred within a year with regular attempts to conceive a child, and the exact cause of infertility is unknown, then you need to visit a gynecologist or go to the family planning center and undergo a test for infertility in women. In general, different doctors can solve problems with conception: gynecologists, endocrinologists, sexopathologists. It depends on the causes of infertility.
Doctors diagnose the impossibility of having children only after a full assessment of the state of the woman’s health. Do not be scared if specialists cannot find the exact cause. It may take quite a long time to clarify it.
The process of pathology diagnosis consists of the following stages:
- Anamnesis collection.
- Gynecological examination.
- Laboratory analysis.
- Primary assessment of the ability to ovulate.
- Endoscopic diagnosis.
Is It Possible to Treat Infertility?
If in the course of the survey, experts determined that the woman, as well as her husband’s reproductive functions are normal, the couple are recommended to conduct a planned intercourse. Probably, pregnancy does not occur because of incorrectly calculated ovulation or because of the missed favorable days for conception. The doctor will tell you which day is best to plan sexual intercourse.
- Medicamentous treatment: For the treatment of primary or secondary infertility in women various drugs are used. They can be prescribed only by a doctor, depending on the reason, because of which a woman cannot have children. If infertility is caused by a hormonal malfunction, then hormonal preparations that normalize the functioning of the ovaries and stimulate the development of female sex cells are prescribed. This method of treatment is very popular, as in many women the hormonal background is disturbed (there are diseases of the thyroid gland, there are violations of the menstrual cycle). Hormonal preparations give a good effect. After the course of treatment, pregnancy quickly comes. Disadvantages of such drugs are that they have side effects (weight may increase, dryness in the vagina, etc.). The effectiveness depends on the age of the woman, the duration of infertility and the consistency of the ovaries.
- Surgical treatment: This type of treatment is indicated if the cause of infertility is the pathology of the uterus or the fallopian tubes. With the help of laparoscopy – a minimally invasive operation – you can try to restore the patency of the fallopian tubes, eliminating adhesions, coagulating, if the case is in endometriosis, to remove small tumors, or fibroids. Such operations are relatively simple and do not require a long rehabilitation period. However, with the resumption of attempts to conceive the child will have to wait: to fix the effect after the operation, a course of drug therapy is conducted. It should also be mentioned that surgical intervention cannot always help with uterine pathologies. Sometimes, if the anatomical defects are too serious, the only way out is to find a surrogate mother. The effectiveness of surgical treatment of infertility largely depends on the type of pathology and in some cases can reach 90%, and on average 30-40%.
- Psychological assistance: According to statistics, about 30% of cases of infertility are partially or completely due to psychological reasons. Fear of responsibility, inevitable changes in life or birth, insecurity, personal dramas and stress at work – any psychological overload can affect the reproductive health. Sometimes, the inability to become pregnant is caused by the unwillingness to this step: the woman is not yet ready to give birth, but the family or partner presses on her. Often, the root of the problem, paradoxically, lies in the obsession with motherhood, the concentration of all the mental forces on this dream and the total rejection of the rest of the interests in life. Probably everyone heard stories about couples who, after years of infertility, gave in and adopted someone else’s child, and in a few months the woman discovered that she was In this case, psychotherapy can help, and it is desirable to pass it along with a partner.